EDIT: This is on version 0.6, I.E. Samedi, the stable release.
Caused by pressing the eat (E) button while having an item with this material in your inventory, wielding the item in question seems to prevent it.
Causes crash to desktop.
In my case, my (crafted, if it’s relevant) reflex-recurve bow would cause a crash every time I hit E to bring up the consumables list. If it is wielded, the crash does not occur. The character also had the Internal Furnace bionic, which may be relevant.